In earlier studies, methods were developed to raise specific antibodies in rabbits against purified suspensions of mouse or human eosinophils. On administration of antieosinophil serum (AES) to mice, the mature eosinophils in tissues, peripheral blood, and bone marrow were depleted, while the immature eosinophil pool in the bone marrow was observed to proliferate. The current investigations explore the generation of eosinophilopoietic factors during AES-induced eosinophilopenia. Mice received three injections of AES, one every other day. As the peripheral eosinophil counts started to recover after the last AES injection, the serum was collected and transferred to normal animals. Within 2 days the recipients showed an increase in peripheral blood as well as in bone marrow eosinophils. The rise in bone marrow eosinophils was due to newly formed cells as evidenced by increased uptake of [3H]thymidine. The generation of eosinophilopoietic activity was specifically related to depletion of eosinophils but not neutrophils. The eosinophilopoietic activity was: (a) dependent on the volume of serum transferred, (b) lost on dialysis, and (c) largely heat labile. The activity eluted as a low molecular weight substance on G-25 Sephadex and was digested by pronase but not by trypsin. Active fractions collected from G-25 columns were not chemotactic for the eosinophils in vitro. Thus, specific depletion of mature eosinophils generates a low molecular weight peptide which stimulates eosinophilopoiesis in vivo. It is suggested that this substance be named eosinophilopoietin.