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Liver Injury by Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication in 16 Patients Treated with Forced Ventilation to Accelerate Toxin Removal via the Lungs: A Clinical Report.

Authors
  • Teschke, Rolf1
  • 1 Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, 63450 Hanau, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Medical Faculty, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, 60323 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. [email protected]. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxics
Publication Date
Apr 27, 2018
Volume
6
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxics6020025
PMID: 29702608
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl₄ may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl₄. Among various therapy options, the CO₂-induced hyperventilation therapy will be considered in detail as the most promising approach. This special therapy was developed because only around 1% of the intoxicating CCl₄ is responsible for the liver injury after conversion to toxic radicals via microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 whereas 99% of the solvent will leave the body unchanged by exhalation. Therefore, to enhance CCl₄ elimination through the lungs, CO₂ is added to the inspiration air at a flow rate of 2⁻3 L min−1 in order to achieve hyperventilation with a respiratory volume of 25⁻30 L min−1. Under this therapy, the clinical course was favorable in 15/16 patients, corresponding to 93.8%. In essence, patients with acute CCl₄ intoxication should be treated by forced ventilation.

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