The reduction of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) and N-nitroso(2-oxopropyl)propylamine (NOPPA) by hepatic and pancreatic cytosol and microsomes from Syrian golden hamsters and Sprague-Dawley rats has been examined. All hepatic fractions reduced both substrates, although the activity depended on the fraction tested and the cofactor employed (NADH or NADPH). Generally, hamster hepatic fractions contained higher activity than the rat hepatic fractions and BOP was a better substrate than NOPPA. Of the pancreatic fractions, only cytosol exhibited reductase activity. The hamster cytosol was able to utilise both cofactors, but the rat fraction exhibited activity only when NADPH was present. BOP was the better substrate for the pancreatic enzymes and in the presence of NADPH, the rat and hamster activities were about equal. These results suggest that the pancreatic reduction of BOP to HPOP is unlikely to be a significant factor in the species-specific induction of pancreatic cancer by BOP.