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Entangled Entanglement: The Geometry of GHZ States

  • Uchida, Gabriele
  • Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
  • Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.
Published Article
Publication Date
Oct 27, 2014
Submission Date
Oct 27, 2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2015.07.045
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The familiar Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a state of the third qubit, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in this way we obtain all 8 independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a certain geometry that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications. Furthermore, we study the geometry of these particular state spaces, the inherent symmetries, the cyclicity of the phase operations, and the regions of (genuine multi-partite) entanglement and the several classes of separability. We find non-trivial geometrical properties and a conceptually clear procedure to compare state spaces of different dimensions and number of particles.

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