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Enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): An explorative pharmacokinetic study.

  • Poapolathep, Saranya1
  • Chomcheun, Thanaphan2
  • Giorgi, Mario3, 4
  • Jualaong, Suthep2
  • Klangkaew, Narumol1
  • Phaochoosak, Napasorn1
  • Udomkusonsri, Pareeya1
  • Marin, Pedro5
  • Poapolathep, Amnart1
  • 1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. , (Thailand)
  • 2 Eastern Marine and Coastal Resources Research and Development Center, Rayong, Thailand. , (Thailand)
  • 3 Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 4 PhD school of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 5 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. , (Spain)
Published Article
Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
Publication Date
Oct 26, 2020
DOI: 10.1111/jvp.12922
PMID: 33107624


The present study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetic features of enrofloxacin (ENR) and its major metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP) in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) after single intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration at two dosages of 5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The study used 10 animals randomly divided into equal groups. Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 168 hr. The concentrations of ENR and CIP in turtle plasma were quantified by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The concentration of ENR in the experimental turtles with respect to time was pharmacokinetically analyzed using a noncompartment model. The concentrations of ENR in the plasma were quantified up to 144 hr after i.v. and i.m. administrations at dosages of 5 and 7.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas CIP was quantified up to 96 and 144 hr, respectively. The elimination half-life values of ENR were 38.7 and 50.4 hr at dose rates of 5 and 7.5 mg/kg b.w. after i.v. administration, whereas CIP was 33.6 and 22.6 hr, respectively. The maximum concentration (Cmax ) values of ENR were 2.07 and 2.59 μg/ml at dose rates of 5 and 7.5 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The value of area under the curve from 0 to 24 hr (AUC0-24 )/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of ENR was >125 for bacteria with MIC of 0.12 and 0.13 μg/ml after the administration of 5 mg/kg by i.m. and i.v. administration, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, susceptibility break-point and pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices, i.m. single administration of ENR at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w. might be clinically appropriate for treatment of susceptible bacteria in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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