It has been reported that diallyl sulfide (DS) and diallyl disulfide (DDS), major volatile compounds in garlic (Allium sativum), exert anticarcinogenic activity in several organs in rodents. The modifying effects of these two chemicals were therefore assessed using two-step liver and multi-organ carcinogenesis models. In experiment 1, male F344 rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg body wt) and then received DS or DDS by intragastric intubation at doses of 200 and 50 mg/kg body wt, respectively, three times a week for 6 weeks. All rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at experimental week 3. In experiment 2, male F344 rats were sequentially treated with five carcinogens with different organ target sites for 4 weeks, and then administered DS or DDS as in experiment 1 for 24 weeks. DS demonstrated clear enhancing effects on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in both experiments. On the other hand, an inhibitory potential in colon and renal carcinogenesis was observed in rats treated with DDS. Therefore, while DDS may act as a chemopreventive agent, DS may promote hepatocarcinogenesis.