This study was carried out to evaluate whether bitumen cytotoxicity is enhanced when bitumen treatment is combined with UVA exposure. We also evaluated the oxidative processes in bitumen-induced DNA damage, and attempted to identify the DNA damage caused by bitumen and UVA exposures, either alone or in combination. The effects of bitumen and UVA on cell proliferation were examined using HL 60 cells. DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) were assessed using a K-SDS assay, and reactive oxygen species formation was detected by 8-OH-dG formation. We evaluated the formations of double-strand breaks (DSB) using lambdaDNA/HindIII and single-strand breaks (SSB) using PM2 DNA. The cytotoxicity assay showed enhanced suppression of cell proliferation when bitumen exposure and UVA exposure were combined. Combined exposure caused significant increases in DPCs over either exposure alone. Incubation of deoxyguanosine (dG) with bitumen or UVA showed an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels when compared with controls, and combined exposure enhanced this effect. An evaluation of agarose gel bands showed that DSB and SSB were not formed following exposure to bitumen and UVA. This fact indicates that bitumen and UVA may be involved in genotoxic processes by producing oxygen free radicals and that combined exposure enhances these effects.