The aim of the present study was to utilize chitosan (CS) nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of the poorly cell-penetrating antibiotic, ceftriaxone sodium (CTX). In vitro characterization of (CTX-CS) nanoparticles was conducted leading to an optimized formula that was assessed for its biocompatibility to blood (hemolysis test) and cells (MTT assay). Progressively, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), cellular uptake (microfluorimetry), and antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles were investigated in two cell lines: Caco-2 and macrophages J774.2 pre-infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Results showed that the optimized formula had size 210 nm, positive zeta potential (+30 mV) and appreciable entrapment efficiency for CTX (45%) and included a biphasic release pattern. The nanoparticles were biocompatible and were internalized by cells as verified by CLSM whereas microfluorimetry indicated substantial cellular uptake. Moreover, the CTX-chitosan nanoparticles showed a significant reduction in the count of intracellular S. typhimurium in Caco-2 and macrophages J774.2. This reduction was significantly higher than that obtained in case of placebo nanoparticles, CTX, and CTX-chitosan solutions and might be attributed to enhanced endocytic uptake of the nanoaprticles and antibacterial effect of the chitosan polymer. In conclusion, the results provide evidence for the potential use of chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the intracellular delivery and antibacterial effect of CTX in enterocytes and macrophages.