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Enhanced adhesion from high energy ion irradiation

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We have found that irradiation of a variety of thin film-substrate combinations by heavy ion beams at energies of mega-electronvolts per atomic mass unit will produce a remarkable enhancement in the adherence of the film. For example, gold films can be firmly attached to soft materials such as Teflon using a 1 MeV beam of protons (10^(14) cm^(−2)) or helium ions (10^(13) cm^(−2)) and to harder materials such as silicon (10^(15) cm^(−2)), quartz (2 × 10^(15) cm^(−2)) and tungsten (2 × 10^(14) cm^(−2)) with 0.5 MeV a.m.u.^(−1) beams of fluorine or chlorine ions. In the case of metal films on semiconductors a low resistance contact results. The mixed layer at the interface is observed to be quite thin (approximately 50 Å or less); for silver on silicon electron diffraction and imaging studies of the interface region reveal the presence of crystalline silver compounds.

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