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Engineering of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase Reveals pH-Regulated Mechanism of Enhanced Long-Chain Glycosylated Sophoricoside Specificity.

Authors
  • Han, Ruizhi1, 2
  • Ni, Jie2
  • Zhou, Jieyu2
  • Dong, Jinjun2
  • Xu, Guochao2
  • Ni, Ye3, 2
  • 1 Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. , (China)
  • 2 Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. , (China)
  • 3 Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China [email protected] , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Mar 18, 2020
Volume
86
Issue
7
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00004-20
PMID: 32005733
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Sophoricoside glycosylated derivatives, especially long-chain glycosylated sophoricosides (LCGS), have greatly improved water solubility compared with sophoricoside. Here, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Paenibacillus macerans (PmCGTase) was employed for sophoricoside glycosylation. Saturation mutagenesis of alanine 156, alanine 166, glycine 173, and leucine 174 was performed due to their nonconservative properties among α-, β-, and γ-CGTases with different product specificities. Variants L174P, A156V/L174P, and A156V/L174P/A166Y greatly improved the product specificity for LCGS. pH significantly affected the extent of glycosylation catalyzed by the variants. Further investigations revealed that the pH-regulated mechanism for LCGS synthesis mainly depends on a disproportionation route at a lower pH (pH 4) and a cyclization-coupling route at a higher pH (pH 8) and equivalent effects of cyclization-coupling and disproportionation routes at pH 5. Whereas short-chain glycosylated sophoricosides (SCGS) are primarily produced via disproportionation of maltodextrin at pH 4 and secondary disproportionation of LCGS at pH 8. At pH 5, SCGS synthesis mainly depends on a hydrolysis route by the wild type (WT) and a secondary disproportionation route by variant A156V/L174P/A166Y. Kinetics analysis showed a decreased Km value of variant A156V/L174P/A166Y. Dynamics simulation results demonstrated that the improved LCGS specificity of the variant is possibly attributed to the enhanced affinity to long-chain substrates, which may be caused by the changes of hydrogen bond interactions at the -5, -6, and -7 subsites. Our results reveal a pH-regulated mechanism for product specificity of CGTase and provide guidance for engineering CGTase toward products with different sugar chain lengths.IMPORTANCE The low water solubility of sophoricoside seriously limits its applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Long-chain glycosylated sophoricosides show greatly improved water solubility. Here, the product specificity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) for long-chain glycosylated sophoricosides was significantly affected by pH. Our results reveal the pH-regulated mechanism of the glycosylated product specificity of CGTase. This work adds to our understanding of the synthesis of long-chain glycosylated sophoricosides and provides guidance for exploring related product specificity of CGTase based on pH regulation. Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology.

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