An investigation was carried out in which microsamples of isolated rat liver mitochondria and freshly prepared mitoplasts in defined energy states were freeze-cleaved. Parallel microsamples were fixed with osmium tetroxide and with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide as previously used in this laboratory for the preservation of energy-linked mitochondrial configurations. The details of the orthodox configuration of energized mitochondria and the condensed configuration of de-energized mitochondria, as revealed previously by chemical fixation, are confirmed in this report for nonfixed, freeze-cleaved mitochondria. The precise agreement in preservation of configuration obtained by the physical fixation of rapid freezing and by chemical fixation establishes unequivocally that mitochondria undergo energy-linked ultrastructural transformation between the condensed and the orthodox configurations which are thus natural structural states related to the metabolic activity of the mitochondrion. Configurations observed by freeze-cleaving and by chemical fixation reveal that mitoplasts also undergo a specific and dramatic ultrastructural transformation with the induction of oxidative phosphorylation. The transformation appears to be isovolumetric and therefore is thought to be mediated through energized conformational activity in the surface electron-transport membrane of the mitoplast. Passively swollen, spherical, osmotically active mitoplasts could not be fixed rapidly enough by chemical fixatives as normally used without altering the spherical form. In this special case preservation of configurational form required rapid freezing or chemical fixatives of low osmolar concentration.