BackgroundDelayed arterial hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy is a life-threatening complication. There are no reports about infected aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery after pancreaticoduodenectomy without clinically relevant pancreatic fistula.Case presentationA 78-year-old woman with borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma involving the superior mesenteric arterial nerve plexus underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with en bloc resection of the superior mesenteric vein and the superior mesenteric arterial nerve plexus after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. On postoperative day 14, she had bacteremia and sudden fever with chills. During the postoperative course, macroscopic abscesses or distinct infectious signs, including pancreatic fistula or bile fistula, were not present, but pylephlebitis was observed. After the antimicrobial treatment course, the patient was discharged. After 17 days, she was hospitalized for melena. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a ruptured aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery into the small intestine without a major intraabdominal abscess. E. coli was isolated from blood cultures. The patient was diagnosed with a ruptured infected aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. She was treated successfully with a covered stent by the cardiology team. There was no recurrence of bleeding at the 4-month follow-up, and the stent was patent in all subsequent computed tomography scans.ConclusionsEndovascular repair using a covered stent was effective in palliating acute bleeding from an infected aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery.