Background: Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) is difficult due to the extremely low concentration of their precursors in the peripheral blood (PB). We hypothesized that mechanical injury to the arterial wall during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may increase the release of circulating ECFC precursors and induce their growth in vitro. Methods: PB samples from patients with coronary artery disease were collected before, immediately after, and 24 h after the surgery in the CABG group. In the PCI group, PB was isolated before, immediately after the insertion of the catheter, immediately after balloon angioplasty, and 24 h after the PCI. A mononuclear fraction of PB was isolated and differentiated into ECFCs with the following immunophenotyping and evaluation of angiogenic properties. Results. The obtained cultures corresponded to the phenotype and tube forming potential consistent with ECFCs. The isolation of ECFCs in the PCI group was successful in 75% of cases (six out of eight patients) after catheter insertion and in 87.5% (seven out of eight patients) after the balloon inflation and stent deployment. These cultures had high/medium proliferative activity in contrast to those obtained before or 24 h after the intervention. Conclusions: Mechanical injury during PCI increases the release of ECFC precursors to the PB and, hence, the efficacy of ECFC isolation.