Endothelial dysfunction has emerged as one of the major mechanisms involved in the increased cardiovascular disease risk seen in the HIV population. Endothelial progenitor cells, circulating endothelial cells, endothelial microparticles, and platelet microparticles are all now considered as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in otherwise healthy individuals. Preliminary evidence suggests that these biomarkers may similarly predict cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected patients, helping to assist in preventive and therapeutic decision making. This review updates the current knowledge and the most recent advances in the pathophysiology of cells and particles involved in atherosclerosis in the HIV setting. The potential usefulness of measuring cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in HIV-infected individuals to prevent future cardiovascular events is further discussed.