Detection of small pancreatic cancers, which have a better prognosis than large cancers, is needed to reduce high mortality rates. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for detecting pancreatic lesions. The high resolution of EUS makes it particularly useful for detecting small pancreatic lesions that may be missed by other imaging modalities. Therefore, EUS should be performed in patients with obstructive jaundice in whom computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not identify a definite pancreatic lesion. Interest in the use of EUS for screening individuals at high risk of pancreatic cancer, including those with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and familial pancreatic cancer is growing. Contrast-enhanced EUS can facilitate differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions as well as malignant cystic lesions. In addition, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration can provide samples of small pancreatic lesions. Thus, EUS and EUS-related techniques are essential for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.