The article generalizes experience (1986-1991) in the treatment of 246 patients with choledocholithiasis with the performance of endoscopic papillosphincterotomy. Most patients (61%) were over 60 years of age, many had serious concomitant diseases. Among patients with occlusion of the bile ducts, 53.6% had obstructive purulent cholangitis, 53.6% had acute biliary pancreatitis, and 30.9% had acute cholecystitis. Typical as well as atypical cannulation EPST was applied. To exclude an X-ray load on the patient and doctor, the orifices of the terminal part of the common bile duct and of the main pancreatic duct were identified in most patients by an elaborated method of cannulation with aspiration control without preliminary contrast X-ray examination. After EPST the concrements were removed completely in 194 and partly in 52 patients. Complications occurred in 35 patients (bleeding in 5, acute pancreatitis in 8, acute cholangitis in 6, acute cholecystitis in 8, perforation of the duodenum in 1, and wedging of Dormia's basket in 8 patients. Eight patients died after EPST from unresolved purulent cholangitis and multiple cholangitic abscesses of the liver. The long-term results were studied in follow-up periods of 12 months to 7 years. Recurrent cholelithiasis was encountered in 2 patients. On the basis of the accumulated experience we believe EPST to be the method of choice in the management of: residual and recurrent choledocholithiasis, patients with cholecystocholedocholithiasis and operation risk factors, patients with acute biliary pancreatitis and acute obstructive cholangitis.