This study was undertaken to design a safe technique to examine the carpal flexor tendon sheath (carpal sheath) of horses endoscopically, using an arthroscope. The limbs from 15 horses were used to study the normal anatomy of the carpal sheath and related structures, establish a safe approach and endoscopic technique, and determine the normal endoscopic appearance of the sheath. Major arteries, veins and nerves, present within and around the sheath, left few 'safe' areas to insert the endoscope. Several portals were assessed and a distal lateral approach was found to be safest and to allow adequate visualisation of most of the sheath. The surgical technique and normal endoscopic findings are described in detail and discussed.