The effects of the agonist of the glucocorticoid hormones dexamethasone and dopamine antagonist--haloperidol on the concentration of immunoreactive alpha-, beta- and gamma-endorphins in duodenum, ileum, and jejunum of rats were studied. Besides the extracts of the intestines, the immunoreactive endorphins were measured in the extracts of their mucosa-submucosa and muscle-serous layers, that allowed to separate the endorphin-producing cells of the nervous system (muscle-serous layer) from endorphin producing cells of endocrine and immune systems (mucosa-submucosa layer). The injection of dexamethasone (0.2 mg per rat, daily for 6 days) caused the reliable decrease in concentrations of all three types of endorphins in mucosa-submucosa and muscle-serous layer of duodenum, ileum, and jejunum. Under the action of haloperidol (0.6 mg per rat, daily for 6 days) the reliable increase of beta-endorphin concentration was noticed only in jejunum. The suggestion is made that two distinct subpopulations of endorphin-producing cells exist in the intestine: in one cells endorphin synthesis is regulated by glucocorticoids, as in the anterior lobe of pituitary, in the other cells the synthesis of endorphins is regulated by dopamine, as in the cells of the intermediate lobe of pituitary. It is suggested that both glucocorticoid and dopamine types of regulation of endorphins synthesis were formed in the intestine or even in the gastric cavity. In process of evolution the cells with glucocorticoid type of regulation gave rise to the anterior lobe of pituitary, the cells with the dopamine type of regulation--to the intermediate lobe.