The concept of an endoprosthetic surface replacement of the humeral head differs from that of stemmed endoprostheses. It is the replacement of the destroyed joint surface with reconstruction of the normal anatomy and minimal bone resection. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the short-term results of a newly developed cup arthroplasty (Durom-Cup) for the humeral head. In a prospective study, 39 patients with 46 Durom-Cups were evaluated preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively. The average follow-up was 15 +/- 9 months. The group included 28 shoulders with rheumatoid arthritis, 15 joints with osteoarthritis, and 3 humeral head necroses. The Constant-score and SAS-function score were used. The Constant-score increased from 20.25 +/- 9.06 points preoperatively to 46.62 +/- 14.05 at 3 months, to 48.11 +/- 14.49 at 6 months, and to 55.25 +/- 11.6 at 9 months postoperatively. The Constant-score stayed at this level during further follow-up and was 55.81 +/- 16.31 at 12 months postoperatively. The best results were seen in the group of humeral head necroses with a Constant-score of 71.0 +/- 12.2 compared to 54.66 +/- 13.89 in the group of osteoarthritis and 56.78 +/- 13.33 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 12 months postoperatively. The results with the Durom-Cup are encouraging so that cup arthroplasty seems to be a good alternative to stemmed prostheses. The main advantages of the humeral head resurfacing are the bone-preserving fixation and the relatively simple surgical technique.