Various endocrine and metabolic disturbances associated with long standing uremia persist after kidney transplantation or arise from the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Hyperlipidemia for long time being implicated as the cause of corticosteroids is also observed in renal transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin A monotherapy. After conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration fall, and elevation of LDL-cholesterol may also be reversed. There is a tendency for higher HDL-cholesterol in azathioprine and prednisolone treated transplant patients. Those patients who are at risk for clinically significant cholesterol elevations can be predicted by their pretransplant lipid levels, specifically the LDL-fraction. Risk-benefit ratio of conversion and of treatment with lipid-lowering drugs, especially with lovastatin, should be carefully examined, also in view of glucose intolerance. Higher incidence of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy in cyclosporin treated transplant recipients has been reported. Cyclosporin may cause toxic effects on pancreatic beta-cells resulting in inhibition of insulin secretion. High doses of cyclosporin induce inhibition of glycogen synthesis in rat liver. Glucose intolerance is reversible after reduction of cyclosporin dose or conversion to azathioprine. Therefore glucose metabolism in kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin should be carefully followed. Immunosuppressive therapy may affect reproductive function, arachidonate metabolism and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as well as posttransplant calcium and phosphate metabolism. Endocrine and metabolic abnormalities are associated with long standing uremia. After successful kidney transplantation several observations are normalized but further complications arise from the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The present paper reviews various endocrine and metabolic disturbances described following renal transplantation.