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The Endocardium and Heart Valves.

Authors
  • Dye, Bailey1, 2, 3
  • Lincoln, Joy2, 3
  • 1 Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
  • 2 Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
  • 3 Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Herma Heart Institute, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Publisher
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a036723
PMID: 31988139
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Endocardial cells are specialized endothelial cells that, during embryogenesis, form a lining on the inside of the developing heart, which is maintained throughout life. Endocardial cells are an essential source for several lineages of the cardiovascular system including coronary endothelium, endocardial cushion mesenchyme, cardiomyocytes, mural cells, fibroblasts, liver vasculature, adipocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Alterations in the differentiation programs that give rise to these lineages has detrimental effects, including premature lethality or significant structural malformations present at birth. Here, we will review the literature pertaining to the contribution of endocardial cells to valvular, and nonvalvular lineages and highlight critical pathways required for these processes. The lineage differentiation potential of embryonic, and possibly adult, endocardial cells has therapeutic potential in the regeneration of damaged cardiac tissue or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2020 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

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