This study is a comparative survey on the experiences of autonomy of Norwegian and Swedish principals. The study uses theories and earlier research regarding teachers and autonomy. The research design that is used has in earlier research been used to study the autonomy of teachers. The experiences of autonomy is studied through questions on decision-making and control within four domains in which the principal operates: the pedagogical domain, the social domain, the domain of development and the administrative domain. The study shows that the principals in Norway and Sweden are governed in much the same manner regarding laws and curriculum in their respective countries. The level in which the principals experience themselves as autonomous in their work is approximately the same in Sweden and Norway. Although, the study suggests that there is a small discrepancy among the Norwegian principals who experience a slightly higher level of autonomy.