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Emerging Treatment Options for Infections by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Positive Microorganisms

Authors
  • Koulenti, Despoina1,
  • Xu, Elena1
  • Song, Andrew1
  • Sum Mok, Isaac Yin1
  • Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E.2
  • Armaganidis, Apostolos
  • Tsiodras, Sotirios2
  • Lipman, Jeffrey1, 3, 4
  • 1 (J.L.)
  • 2 (S.T.)
  • 3 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia
  • 4 Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire De Nîmes (CHU), University of Montpellier, 30029 Nîmes, France
Type
Published Article
Journal
Microorganisms
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 30, 2020
Volume
8
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms8020191
PMID: 32019171
PMCID: PMC7074912
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Antimicrobial agents are currently the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections worldwide. However, due to the increased use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medicine, pathogens have now evolved to possess high levels of multi-drug resistance, leading to the persistence and spread of difficult-to-treat infections. Several current antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive bacteria will be rendered useless in the face of increasing resistance rates. There are several emerging antibiotics under development, some of which have been shown to be more effective with an improved safety profile than current treatment regimens against Gram-positive bacteria. We will extensively discuss these antibiotics under clinical development (phase I-III clinical trials) to combat Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae . We will delve into the mechanism of actions, microbiological spectrum, and, where available, the pharmacokinetics, safety profile, and efficacy of these drugs, aiming to provide a comprehensive review to the involved stakeholders.

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