Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol has a well-established role in atherogenesis and the development of coronary heart disease. However, despite effective lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to have cardiovascular events. It has subsequently emerged that several additional dyslipidemic states promote atherogenesis. In particular, the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype comprising an elevation of triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; decreased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and increased small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in addition to impaired postprandial lipemia, have been demonstrated to have profound effects on the arterial wall. As such, these factors have become important targets in the development of effective strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.