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Emerging biotechnologies for evaluating disruption of stress, sleep, and circadian rhythm mechanism using aptamer-based detection of salivary biomarkers.

Authors
  • Pundir, Meenakshi1
  • Papagerakis, Silvana2
  • De Rosa, Maria C3
  • Chronis, Nikos4
  • Kurabayashi, Katsuo5
  • Abdulmawjood, Shahad3
  • Prince, Mark Edward P6
  • Lobanova, Liubov7
  • Chen, Xiongbiao8
  • Papagerakis, Petros9
  • 1 Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr, Saskatoon S7K 5A9, Canada; Laboratory of Precision Oral Health and Chronobiology, College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon S7N 5E4, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 2 Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr, Saskatoon S7K 5A9, Canada; Laboratory of Oral, Head and Neck Cancer - Personalized Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon S7N 5E4, Canada; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Canada)
  • 3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 4 Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, Vassilika Voutes, Heraklion, GR 700 13, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. , (United States)
  • 6 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. , (United States)
  • 7 Laboratory of Precision Oral Health and Chronobiology, College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon S7N 5E4, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 8 Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr, Saskatoon S7K 5A9, Canada; Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr, S7K 5A9 Saskatoon, Canada. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Canada)
  • 9 Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Dr, Saskatoon S7K 5A9, Canada; Laboratory of Precision Oral Health and Chronobiology, College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon S7N 5E4, Canada. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Canada)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biotechnology advances
Publisher
Oxford : Pergamon Press
Publication Date
Apr 12, 2022
Pages
107961–107961
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2022.107961
PMID: 35427723
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The internally driven 24-h cycle in humans, called circadian rhythm, controls physiological, metabolic, and hormonal processes, and is tied to the circadian clocks ticking in most of the cells and tissues. The central clock, located in suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, is directly influenced by external cues, particularly light, and entrains the peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal pathways to the external light-dark cycle. However, peripheral clocks also have self-sustained circadian rhythmicity and feeding is the potent synchronizer. The internal clock system regulates the sleep-wake cycle and maintains stress responses through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic pathways. Any misalignment in this complex network could lead to circadian clock disruption and endocrine and metabolic dysfunction that may induce inflammatory responses. The detrimental consequences of such dysfunction are broad and can lead to serious health problems; however, the extent of the circadian disruption is difficult to assess. New promising techniques based on biosensors and point-of-care devices using aptamers - single-stranded DNA or RNA biorecognition molecules that can measure biomarkers of stress, sleep, and circadian rhythms in bodily fluids such as saliva with high sensitivity and specificity - can provide timely and accurate diagnosis and allow for effective implementation of behavioral and therapeutic interventions. This review provides detailed insight into the complex crosstalk between stress, sleep, and circadian rhythm, their relationship with the body's homeostasis, and the consequences of circadian dysregulation. The review also summarizes the mechanisms of aptamer-based biosensors and/or point-of-care devices developed to date for the detection of salivary biomarkers linked to stress, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Lastly, the review outlines the knowledge gaps in the literature related to the detection of lower concentrations of biomarkers in saliva and discusses the prospects of aptamer-based detection of salivary biomarkers from a high-precision perspective that is crucial for clinical diagnosis, at a time when circadian disruption is evident in unprecedented proportions across the globe. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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