Anopheles culicifacies s.l. is a predominant mosquito vector in rural India generating bulk of malaria cases (>60%) annually and maintains endemic malaria in areas of its influence. It is the most studied species complex for its sibling-species composition, distribution and their bionomical characteristics having implications in vector control. It is a highly adaptive and robust mosquito virtually resistant to all available insecticides including pyrethroids in large tracts of mainland India and fast invading new territories thwarting malaria elimination efforts. Control of An. culicifacies is a formidable challenge and containing its spread and transmission of drug-resistant malaria deserves utmost priority. Innovative technologies are warranted for sustained control of this vector species for achieving malaria elimination.Vector surveillance and monitoring insecticide resistance should be the continuing activity for formulating evidence-based and doable intervention strategies for effective vector management.