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Emergence and Spread of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in Pigs and Exposed Workers: A Multicentre Comparative Study between Cameroon and South Africa

  • Founou, Luria Leslie1, 2
  • Founou, Raspail Carrel1, 3
  • Ntshobeni, Noyise4
  • Govinden, Usha1
  • Bester, Linda Antoinette
  • Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf4
  • Djoko, Cyrille Finyom5
  • Essack, Sabiha Yusuf1
  • 1 (S.Y.E.)
  • 2 Department of Food Safety and Environmental Microbiology, Centre of Expertise and Biological Diagnostic of Cameroon (CEDBCAM), Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
  • 3 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Centre of Expertise and Biological Diagnostic of Cameroon (CEDBCAM), Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
  • 4 (H.Y.C.)
  • 5 Metabiota Inc., Yaoundé 8242, Cameroon
Published Article
Publication Date
Jan 16, 2019
DOI: 10.3390/pathogens8010010
PMID: 30654509
PMCID: PMC6470761
PubMed Central


Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent a significant public health concern globally and are recognized by the World Health Organization as pathogens of critical priority. However, the prevalence of ESBL-PE in food animals and humans across the farm-to-plate continuum is yet to be elucidated in Sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon and South Africa. This work sought to determine the risk factors, carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic relatedness of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) amid pigs and abattoir workers in Cameroon and South Africa. ESBL-PE from pooled samples of 432 pigs and nasal and hand swabs of 82 humans were confirmed with VITEK 2 system. Genomic fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for human ESBL-PE carriage using a questionnaire survey amongst abattoir workers. ESBL-PE prevalence in animal samples from Cameroon were higher than for South Africa and ESBL-PE carriage was observed in Cameroonian workers only. Nasal ESBL-PE colonization was statistically significantly associated with hand ESBL-PE (21.95% vs. 91.67%; p = 0.000; OR = 39.11; 95% CI 2.02–755.72; p = 0.015). Low level of education, lesser monthly income, previous hospitalization, recent antibiotic use, inadequate handwashing, lack of training and contact with poultry were the risk factors identified. The study highlights the threat posed by ESBL-PE in the food chain and recommends the implementation of effective strategies for antibiotic resistance containment in both countries.

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