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Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

  • Barbour, E K
  • Jurdi, L H
  • Talhouk, R
  • Qatanani, M
  • Eid, A
  • Sakr, W
  • Bouljihad, M
  • Spasojevic, R
Published Article
Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
Publication Date
Dec 01, 1999
PMID: 10588015


This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one per each of the nine broiler farms) was 14.1 kilobases (kb) and approximately 50.0 kb, a typical pattern to that identified in S. Enteritidis organisms recovered from oviducts of breeders on one out of four breeder farms. The exclusion significantly reduced cumulative mortality in birds of up to 45 days of age by 3.93%, in comparison to that observed in untreated challenged birds (P < 0.05). At 45 days of age, exclusion resulted in a 15.6% reduction in the percentage infection rate by S. Enteritidis in spleens or livers and a 34.4% reduction in the percentage infection rate of the caeca (P < 0.05).

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