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Emergence of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase (CTX-M-9)-Producing Multiresistant Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow in Poultry and Humans in France

  • François-Xavier Weill
  • Renaud Lailler
  • Karine Praud
  • Annaëlle Kérouanton
  • Laëtitia Fabre
  • Anne Brisabois
  • Patrick A. D. Grimont
  • Axel Cloeckaert
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2004
  • Medicine


During 2002 to 2003, eight Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow poultry and poultry product isolates from various sources (chicken farms, poultry slaughterhouse, or retail store) and one S. enterica rough strain isolated from human feces were found to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-9. Poultry and poultry product isolates were recovered from different locations in the southwest of France. The human rough isolate had sequences of flagellin genes (fliC and fljB) typical of serotype Virchow and ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns closely similar to those of serotype Virchow strains. PFGE confirmed the clonal relationship between the poultry isolates, while the human isolate displayed a pattern with 94% homology. The blaCTX-M-9 gene was located on a conjugative plasmid and was shown to be linked to orf513. Plasmid profiling found a very similar EcoRI restriction pattern in six transconjugants studied, including transconjugants obtained from the human isolate. A single hatchery, supplying chicks to the six farms, was identified. Emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing S. enterica strains in food animals is a major concern, as such strains could disseminate on a large scale and lead to antibiotic therapy difficulties.

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