A number of studies indicate that pilots have approximately double the risk of developing melanoma compared to the general population. It is not clear which aetiological factors underpin this increase in risk. Possibilities include leisure time sun exposure, cosmic radiation, circadian rhythm disruption and UV exposures in the cockpit. This brief review presents some of the key research on exposures of interest, with a focus on UV radiation. It highlights the need for further research assessing UVA levels within the cockpit of flying aircraft, given the possibility that glass windscreens may not be particularly effective at blocking UVA.