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Elevated heavy metal concentrations in top soils of an Aegean island town (Greece): total and available forms, origin and distribution.

Authors
  • Massas, I
  • Ehaliotis, C
  • Gerontidis, S
  • Sarris, E
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2009
Volume
151
Issue
1-4
Pages
105–116
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0253-2
PMID: 18431683
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Elevated heavy metal concentrations in urban top soils are principal indicators of environmental pollution; however, relative data on the heavy metal status in soils of Greek island towns, that are regional administrative centers and popular tourist destinations, are missing. A survey was conducted to examine heavy metal concentrations in the urban soils of Ermoupolis, the capital of Syros island and of the prefecture of Cyclades complex in the Aegean Sea. Total (aqua-regia extracted) and available (DTPA extracted) concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Sn and Fe were determined in top soil samples collected from green areas and open spaces of the town and in surface samples from inland reference soils of the island. Mean values for the aqua-regia extracted fraction of Cu, Pb and Zn were 117, 155 and 440 mg kg(-1) respectively, up to four times higher than the respective mean values of the reference soils. Enrichment factors (EFs) for these metals indicated high accumulation in the urban top soils and the available to total concentration ratio of Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe was higher for the urban compared to the reference soils, suggesting differences in metal sequestration, resulting in higher metal availability in the urban soils. GIS analysis was used to visualize the spatial distribution of EFs of the studied heavy metals. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis, applied to aqua-regia and DTPA data sets, adequately elucidated the origin of metals grouped under each factor or cluster.

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