The development of highly efficient catalysts using inexpensive and earth-abundant metals is a crucial factor in a large-scale commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this study, we explored a new catalyst based on copper nanodendrites (CuNDs) supported on carbon nanofibers/poly (para-phenylenediamine) (CNF/PpPD) nanocomposite for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst support was prepared on a carbon paste electrode by electropolymerization of para-phenylenediamine monomer on a drop-cast carbon nanofibers network. Afterwards, CuNDs were electrodeposited on the nanocomposite through a potentiostatic method. The morphology and the structure of the prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The results suggested that a three-dimensional nanodendritic structure consisting of Cu2O and Cu(OH)2 formed on the hybrid CNF/PpPD nanocomposite. The catalytic performance of CuNDs supported on CNF, PpPD and CNF/PpPD was evaluated for MOR under alkaline conditions. The CNF/PpPD/CuNDs exhibits a highest activity (50 mA cm−2) and stability toward MOR over 6 h, with respect to CNF/CuNDs (40 mA cm−2) and PpPD/CuNDs (36 mA cm−2). This inexpensive catalyst with high catalytic activity and stability is a promising anode catalyst for alkaline DMFC applications.