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Electronic Structure of Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Doped Graphenes Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors
  • Bulusheva, L. G.1, 2
  • Arkhipov, V. E.1
  • Popov, K. M.1
  • Sysoev, V. I.1, 2
  • Makarova, A. A.
  • Okotrub, A. V.1, 2
  • 1 (A.V.O.)
  • 2 Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Type
Published Article
Journal
Materials
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Mar 06, 2020
Volume
13
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ma13051173
PMID: 32155705
PMCID: PMC7085186
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Heteroatom doping is a widely used method for the modification of the electronic and chemical properties of graphene. A low-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) is used here to grow pure, nitrogen-doped and phosphorous-doped few-layer graphene films from methane, acetonitrile and methane-phosphine mixture, respectively. The electronic structure of the films transferred onto SiO2/Si wafers by wet etching of copper substrates is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy using a synchrotron radiation source. Annealing in an ultra-high vacuum at ca. 773 K allows for the removal of impurities formed on the surface of films during the synthesis and transfer procedure and changes the chemical state of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped graphene. Core level XPS spectra detect a low n -type doping of graphene film when nitrogen or phosphorous atoms are incorporated in the lattice. The electrical sheet resistance increases in the order: graphene < P-graphene < N-graphene. This tendency is related to the density of defects evaluated from the ratio of intensities of Raman peaks, valence band XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy data.

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