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Electrolyte-based calculation of fluid shifts after infusing 0.9% saline in severe hyperglycemia

Authors
  • Svensson, Robert1
  • Zdolsek, Joachim2, 2
  • Malm, Marcus3
  • Hahn, Robert G.4, 5
  • 1 Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden , Norrköping (Sweden)
  • 2 Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden , Linköping (Sweden)
  • 3 Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden , Linköping (Sweden)
  • 4 Södertälje Hospital, Södertälje, 152 40, Sweden , Södertälje (Sweden)
  • 5 Karolinska Institutet at Danderyds Hospital (KIDS), Stockholm, Sweden , Stockholm (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Oct 13, 2020
Volume
8
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s40635-020-00345-9
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundEarly treatment of severe hyperglycemia involves large shifts of body fluids that entail a risk of hemodynamic instability. We studied the feasibility of applying a new electrolyte equation that estimates the degree of volume depletion and the distribution of infused 0.9% saline in this setting.MethodsThe new equation was applied to plasma and urinary concentrations of sodium and chloride measured before and 30 min after a 30-min infusion of 1 L of 0.9% saline on two consecutive days in 14 patients with severe hyperglycemia (mean age 50 years). The extracellular fluid (ECF) volume was also estimated based on the volume dilution kinetics of chloride.ResultsOn day 1, the baseline ECF volume amounted to 11.5 L. The saline infusion expanded the ECF space by 160 mL and the intracellular fluid space by 375 mL. On day 2, the ECF volume was 15.5 L, and twice as much of the infused fluid remained in the ECF space. The chloride dilution kinetics yielded baseline ECF volumes of 11.6 and 15.2 L on day 1 and day 2, respectively. No net uptake of glucose to the cells occurred during the two 1-h measurement periods despite insulin administration in the intervening time period.ConclusionsThe electrolyte equation was feasible to apply in a group of hyperglycemic patients. The ECF space was 3 L smaller than expected on admission but normal on the second day. Almost half of the infused fluid was distributed intracellularly.

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