Electrochemical surface-enhanced Raman scattering (EC-SERS) spectroscopy is an ultrasensitive spectro-electrochemistry technique that provides mechanistic and dynamic information on electrochemical interfaces at the molecular level. However, the plasmon-mediated photocatalysis hinders the intrinsic electrochemical behavior of molecules at electrochemical interfaces. This work aimed to develop a facile method for constructing a reliable EC-SERS substrate that can be used to study the molecular dynamics at electrochemical interfaces. Herein, a novel Ag-WO3−x electrochromic heterostructure was synthesized for EC-SERS. Especially, the use of electrochromic WO3−x film suppresses the influence of hot-electrons-induced catalysis while offering a reliable SERS effect. Based on this finding, the real electrochemical behavior of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) on Ag nanoparticles (NPs) surface was revealed for the first time. We are confident that metal-semiconductor electrochromic heterostructures could be developed into reliable substrates for EC-SERS analysis. Furthermore, the results obtained in this work provide new insights not only into the chemical mechanism of SERS, but also into the hot-electron transfer mechanism in metal-semiconductor heterostructures.