This review is dedicated to the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and the application of MIPs in sensor design. MIP-based biological recognition parts can replace receptors or antibodies, which are rather expensive. Conducting polymers show unique properties that are applicable in sensor design. Therefore, MIP-based conducting polymers, including polypyrrole, polythiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyaniline and ortho-phenylenediamine are frequently applied in sensor design. Some other materials that can be molecularly imprinted are also overviewed in this review. Among many imprintable materials conducting polymer, polypyrrole is one of the most suitable for molecular imprinting of various targets ranging from small organics up to rather large proteins. Some attention in this review is dedicated to overview methods applied to design MIP-based sensing structures. Some attention is dedicated to the physicochemical methods applied for the transduction of analytical signals. Expected new trends and horizons in the application of MIP-based structures are also discussed.