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An Electroanalytical Solution for the Determination of Pb2+ in Progressive Hair Dyes Using the Cork–Graphite Sensor

Authors
  • medeiros, thalita
Publication Date
Feb 14, 2022
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/s22041466
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/1424-8220/22/4/1466/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Lead is one of the most toxic metals for living organisms: once absorbed by soft tissues, it is capable of triggering various pathologies, subsequently bioaccumulating in the bones. In consideration of this, its detection and quantification in products for human consumption and use is of great interest, especially if the procedure can be carried out in an easy, reproducible and economical way. This work presents the results of the electroanalytical determination of lead in three different commercial products used as progressive hair dyes. Analyses were performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) using a composite cork–graphite sensor in 0.5M H2SO4 solution or 0.1M acetate buffer (pH 4.5), in the presence and absence of hair dye samples. The H2SO4 solution gave better results in terms of analyte sensitivity than the acetate buffer electrolyte. In both cases, well-defined signals for lead were obtained by DPSV analyses, enabling the calibration curve and figures of merit to be determined. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be approximately 1.06 µM and 1.26 µM in H2SO4 and acetate buffer, respectively. The DPSV standard addition method was successfully applied to quantify the lead in hair dye samples, yielding values below 0.45% in Pb. All three analyzed samples were shown to comply with the limit set by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency, i.e., 0.6% lead in this type of product. The comparison of the electroanalytical results with those obtained by the reference method, based on the use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES), confirmed that the electroanalytical detection approach is potentially applicable as a strategy for quality control.

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