The therapeutic use of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSC) is rapidly expanding. MSC are stromal cells, which show multipotent stem cell properties in vitro. They possess trophic, immunoregulatory, antimicrobial and hematopoiesis-supportive properties. Moreover, injected MSC are able to migrate to sites of hypoxia and inflammation. Recently, more evidence has become available showing that MSC may originate from pericytes. Different microenvironments as well as non-standardized methods for their isolation and expansion lead to heterogeneous cell populations. Further research is essential in order to use these promising therapies without restrictions in dogs.