In accordance with the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria, updated in 2018, the health of Bulgarian citizens is defined as a vital national interest. The analysis of the data on basic health-demographic indicators shows that our country is currently facing significant national security risks associated with a high level of total and premature mortality, high maternal and infant mortality, high level of disability and low life expectancy, as well as low indicators during the years of good health. The authors consider that improving the health of the nation is inextricably linked to the readiness of the national health system to respond and to provide adequate and continuous medical assistance of good quality. One of the major challenges for the contemporary globalized world is the rapid entering of information and communication technologies in healthcare. The article attempts to outline some of the legal and ethical issues that could arise when information and communication technologies are introduced into the healthcare system (e.g. the use of various applications for mobile devices, remote therapy and disease monitoring, etc.) from a point of view human rights doctrine and the protection of personal data.