Pancreatic islet development is impaired in mice lacking EGFRs (epidermal growth factor receptors). Even partial tissue-specific attenuation of EGFR signalling in the islets leads to markedly reduced beta-cell proliferation and development of diabetes during the first weeks after birth. Out of the many EGFR ligands, betacellulin has been specifically associated with positive effects on beta-cell growth, through both increased proliferation and neogenesis. EGFR action is also necessary for the beta-cell mitogenic activity of the gut hormone GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1). Finally, in vitro models demonstrate a central role for EGFR in transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar and ductal cells into endocrine islet cells. EGFR thus plays an essential role in beta-cell mass regulation, but its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood.