A novel Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (BPBA052) capable of degrading 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) was isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil. The strain was obtained by screening after enrichment, isolation, and purification using 3-PBA as the sole carbon and energy source. It could degrade 96.37% of 3-PBA (100 mg/L) within 72 h, and its growth and 3-PBA degradation followed kinetics models of logistic growth (XBPBA052 = 0.0883 × e0.0947t / [1 - 0.0792 × (1 - 0.0883 × e0.0947t)]; μm = 0.0947 h-1, X0 = 0.0883, and Xm = 1.1145) and first-order degradation (CBPBA052 = 101.8194 × e-0.0403t, k = 0.0403, t1/2 = 17.22 h), respectively. Based on Box-Behnken response surface analysis, the optimal temperature, pH, and 3-PBA concentration for K. pneumoniae BPBA052 were 35.01 °C, 7.77, and 150 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, pyrethroid pesticides (PPs) (such as β-cypermethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, and fenvalerate) and 3-PBA metabolites (including phenol, catechol, and protocatechuate) were efficiently utilized by BPBA052. We propose a novel microbial metabolic pathway for 3-PBA, based on metabolite identification; enzyme-degrading activity; and cloning of the phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase genes. This study provides a fundamental platform for further studies to reveal the mechanism of biodegradation of 3-BPA and show K. pneumoniae BPBA052 as a potential microbial resource for bioremediation of environments polluted with 3-PBA or PPs.