Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have recently become the standard first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. This study aimed to define the role of EGFR-TKI treatment in the adjuvant setting of patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Methods: Three online databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) were used to conduct systematic research to search for studies published before June 1, 2020. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC after radical surgery treated with EGFR-TKIs versus non-EGFR-TKIs in the adjuvant setting were compared. Based on rigorous self-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies were selected, and a meta-analysis was performed using hazard rate (HR) and 95% CIs as effective measures. Results: Eleven studies, published between 2011 and 2020, with a total of 1,900 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. EGFR-TKI treatment showed a significant beneficial effect on DFS (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.31–0.57) and OS (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.45–0.86) for patients with resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC after radical resection in the adjuvant setting. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggested that EGFR-TKI treatment improved the DFS and OS of completely resected patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC compared with non-EGFR-TKI treatment in the adjuvant setting. In the future, our conclusion should be confirmed by additional large-scale and well-designed clinical trials.