1. With respect to the treatment of intrabony defects, the results of meta-analysis supported the following conclusions: 1) bone grafts increase bone level, reduce crestal bone loss, increase clinical attachment level, and reduce probing depth compared to open flap debridement (OFD) procedures; 2) No differences in clinical outcome measures emerge between particulate bone allograft and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) ceramic grafts; and 3) bone grafts in combination with barrier membranes increase clinical attachment level and reduce probing depth compared to graft alone. 2. With respect to the treatment of furcation defects, 15 controlled studies provided data on clinical outcomes. Insufficient studies of comparable design were available to submit data to meta-analysis. Nonetheless, outcome data from these studies generally indicated positive clinical benefits with the use of grafts in the treatment of Class II furcations. 3. With respect to histological outcome parameters, 2 randomized controlled studies provide evidence that demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) supports the formation of a new attachment apparatus in intrabony defects, whereas OFD results in periodontal repair characterized primarily by the formation of a long junctional epithelial attachment. Multiple observational studies provide consistent histological evidence that autogenous and demineralized allogeneic bone grafts support the formation of new attachment. Limited data also suggest that xenogenic bone grafts can support the formation of a new attachment apparatus. In contrast, essentially all available data indicate that alloplastic grafts support periodontal repair rather than regeneration. 4. The results of this systematic review indicate that bone replacement grafts provide demonstrable clinical improvements in periodontal osseous defects compared to surgical debridement alone.