BackgroundTo analyze the clinical efficacy of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC), and to investigate the relationship between its influencing factors and clinical efficacy and prognosis.MethodsA total of 73 patients with early-stage BC who underwent IORT after BCS in our hospital were selected in this research.ResultsKaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to analyze the related factors of BCS and IORT of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). It was found that only age (χ2 = 14.035, P = 0.003) was statistically positively correlated with the patient’s DFS, and local recurrence and metastasis rate and mortality were higher in patients over 70 years old. Log rank test was used to analyze multiple factors. Only the diameter of the applicator (χ2 = 70.378, P < 0.05) was statistically significant with wound complications, and the larger the diameter, the higher incidence of wound complications. The remaining risk factors did not increase the incidence of wound complications. COX multivariate analysis showed that age was an independent risk factor for DFS rate and the risk factor had no significant effect on the OS rate of patients undergoing IORT after BCS.ConclusionsIORT may be a safe form of treatment for the selected patients with early-stage BC, and can achieve satisfactory esthetic effect. Larger applicator diameters may increase the incidence of wound complications. Age is an independent risk factor for DFS in early-stage BC patients undergoing IORT after BCS.