Salmonella typhimurium double leu-arg auxotrophs have been shown to be highly effective as antitumor agents in nude mouse models of human metastatic cancer. In order to proceed to clinical development of the S. typhimurium double auxotroph, termed A1-R, it is necessary to evaluate antitumor efficacy in immunocompetent mice. In the present study, we have observed the efficacy of A1-R on the Lewis lung (LLC) carcinoma in vitro as well as in C57BL/6 (C57) immunocompetent mice. In vitro, A1-R treatment of LLC began to induce cell death within one hour. Various doses and schedules of A1-R were administered to C57 mice implanted with LLC, including bolus single intravenous injection; medium dose with weekly intravenous administration and metronomic treatment with small intravenous doses twice a week. Bolus treatment was toxic to the immunocompetent host, in contrast to nude mice. Lower-dose weekly doses and metronomic doses were well tolerated by the immunocompetent host. Weekly intravenous injection with 2 × 10(7) bacteria and twice a week intravenous injection with 10(7) bacteria significantly inhibited metastasis formation, while bolus injection was toxic. Intra-thoracic administration was carried out with 10(8) bacteria A1-R injected into Lewis lung-bearing C57 mice weekly for three weeks. Lung metastasis was significantly inhibited by intrathoracic bacterial administration, without toxicity. The results in this report, demonstrating the anti-metastatic efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in immunocompetent mice, indicate the clinical potential of bacterial therapy of cancer.