Studies evaluating the effects of psychosocial factors at work on health usually use Karasek’s job demand-control-support (DCS) and Siegrist’s effort-reward imbalance (ERI) models which are both largely documented. There are other models that have been little documented, exploited or analysed yet. Using a literature review of prospective studies carried out in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010, our paper aims to present the main features of the DCS and ERI models and to explain what their limits are. It also sets out to present a state of knowledge concerning the effect of psychosocial factors of three emerging models (“organisational justice”, leadership and “work predictability”) on mental health and determine whether psychosocial factors measured by these three models have an effect on mental health, regardless of the DCS and ERI models. The results of these studies show that the psychosocial factors measured by the organisational justice model have deleterious effects on mental health, independently from the DCS and ERI models. Negative effects of leadership and predictability on mental health have also been observed in most studies. However, because of the limited number of prospective studies, we cannot establish the explanatory status of these models. Be that as it may, emerging models allow to measure some psychosocial factors that are not taken into account by the DCS and ERI models and are thus worth being integrated into future prospective studies on occupational health.