With the rising prevalence of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) worldwide, and the rising cost of treatment with novel biological drugs, there is an increasing interest in various diets and natural foods as a potential way to control/modulate IBD. As recent data indicates that diet can modify the metabolic responses essential for the resolution of inflammation, and as wine compounds have been shown to provide substantial anti-inflammatory effect, in this review we aimed to discuss the current evidence concerning the impact of biological compounds present in wine on IBD. A number of preclinical studies brought forth strong evidence on the mechanisms by which molecules in wine, such as resveratrol or piceatannol, provide their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, and microbiota-modulation effects. However, concerning the effects of alcohol, it is still unclear how the amount of ethanol ingested within the framework of moderate wine consumption (1–2 glasses a day) affects patients with IBD, as human studies regarding the effects of wine on patients with IBD are scarce. Nevertheless, available evidence justifies the conductance of large-scale RCT trials on human subjects that will finally elucidate whether wine can offer real benefits to the IBD population.