The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of wind and rain on peripheral heat loss by non-exercising minimally clothed humans in a mildly cold environment. Seven healthy young male subjects wearing only shorts rested in a standing position for 20 min at an ambient temperature of 15 degrees C under three conditions: without exposure to wind or rain (CON), with exposure to wind (3 m/s) (WIND) and with exposure to wind (3 m/s) and rain (40 mm/h) (WIND + RAIN). Mean heat loss measured using a heat flux transducer was significantly greater in the subjects exposed to WIND + RAIN compared to those exposed to CON and WIND conditions (p < 0.01). Metabolic heat production was significantly greater under WIND + RAIN than under CON and WIND (p < 0.01). Decrease in heat storage was significantly larger at WIND + RAIN compared with CON and WIND (p < 0.01). Mean skin temperature was significantly lower under WIND + RAIN than under CON and WIND conditions (p < 0.01). These results indicate that peripheral heat loss significantly increases when humans are exposed to wind and rain for a short period (20 min) under a mildly cold condition.