Slices of bovine enamel and intact human enamel were treated with (a) a two-step treatment consisting of phytate followed by hexadecyl amine, or (b) 2-O-stearoylglycerol-1,3-diphosphate (Glydip), or (c) phosphatidic acid. The effect of these agents on the rate of caries lesion formation and on the permeability of dental enamel was quantitatively determined. Glydip had the most pronounced effect on lesion formation and showed a strong inhibiting effect on the rate of demineralization, combined with a reduction of the permeability. The results indicate that at least a part of the effect of Glydip on the demineralization was caused by a reduction of the rate of dissolution of the enamel mineral. The reduction in permeability may have had an additional effect.