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Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae.

Authors
  • Sjollema, Sascha B1
  • Martínezgarcía, Gema2
  • van der Geest, Harm G3
  • Kraak, Michiel H S4
  • Booij, Petra5
  • Vethaak, A Dick6
  • Admiraal, Wim7
  • 1 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 2 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 3 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 4 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 5 Department of Chemistry and Biology, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 6 Department of Chemistry and Biology, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Deltares, Marine and Coastal Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 7 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Netherlands)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2014
Volume
187
Pages
106–111
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.019
PMID: 24463473
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol(®)1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally.

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